Different elements of design are mixed together in one picture to create the principles of design. These elements are put together to make the picture look better. The combination of multiple principles can lead to creating artwork that will amaze people, get great publicity, and hopefully benefit the artist who made it.

When you create artwork as an artist, you have to consider the principles of design. You will unknowingly use them as they make your work look nicer and make people more likely to be interested in it.

You can use principles such as contrast, rhythm in order to make your image stand out so that you can catch people’s attention, repetition, the center of interest, while harmony, the direction of movement, and balance help to make your image more visually appealing.

The aim of this article is to help you understand these principles of design and what their importance is. Even abstract art and optical illusions make use of two or more of these principles in order to create an image that catches the viewer’s eye and makes it want to study it. So making your artwork visually appealing, catching people’s eyes, is why the principles are so crucial. If you are wondering what are the principles of design, then don’t worry, we have listed them out below: 

1. Layout and Composition 

You can more easily navigate through your design with layout and composition. Five basic principles that are helpful in transforming a design and sharpening the eye for design, are:

a. Visual proximity:

It is the act of displaying relationships in your context through visual space. Visually grouping related images, paragraphs, and titles helps the designer create a cohesive piece

b. Whitespace:

It is often called negative space. This is simply the area around a design where no design is included. Different sections can be distinguished and separated, giving the content more breathing room. White space — also referred to as “negative space” — is the area of a design that does not include any design elements. Space is, effectively, empty. In addition to highlighting certain content or parts of a design, negative space can also help to clarify it.

c. Alignment:

Alignment allows the placement of objects correctly within a design.

d. Contrast:

The contrast in a design refers to the relationships between elements, especially adjacent elements. Different elements stand out because of these differences. As a result of contrast, users are able to focus on an important object in the design, catching their attention or adding emphasis. Designs can create contrast by using colors, sizes, shapes, fonts, among others. A good contrast is also extremely important when designing for accessibility. Particularly for people with visual impairments, insufficient contrast can make it difficult to read text content.

e. Repetition:

The design can be easily read and understood if it follows a consistent style. Reinforcing an idea with repetition is an excellent strategy. As well as unifying a design that has many different elements, it harmonizes it. There are several ways to repeat elements of a design, including the same colors, typefaces, shapes, and other elements.

2. Balance

When laid out on a page, these elements should feel balanced. Symmetrical and asymmetrical balances are the two main types. As a design principle, symmetrical designs place equal amounts of elements on either side of an arbitrary centerline. The balance used in an asymmetrical design is comprised of elements with different weights, as well as lines that are not central to the overall composition.

3. Emphasis

A design’s emphasis is the part of the design that stands out. The most important information is usually intended to be conveyed by the design. Certain information can also be lessened in impact by emphasizing certain points. The most obvious case is when the “fine print” is included as an ancillary part of a design. Little typographic elements tucked away at the bottom of a page do not carry much weight, and are therefore de-emphasized.

4. Proportion

The proportion principle is one of the easiest to grasp. In a nutshell, it describes how much each element weighs in relation to another. In a design, proportion indicates what is important and what is not. The importance of larger elements is greater, and that of smaller elements is lesser.

5. Hierarchy

Design principles like hierarchy affect how well people can process a website’s content. An element’s importance within a design is determined by its importance. Content (or elements) that are most important should appear most important. A heading and subheading should be formatted such that their importance can be clearly seen in the context of each other and the title.

7. Rhythm

As in a musical composition, the spaces between notes create a sense of rhythm. Similarly, the spaces between repeating elements can produce a rhythm. Visual rhythm can be created in five different ways: random, alternating, progressive, regular, and flowing. 

8. Pattern

Multiple design elements work together to form a pattern. Virtually all of us are familiar with wallpaper patterns, which are ubiquitous. However, when it comes to design, patterns are also designated standards that describe how certain elements must be designed. Internet users are familiar with the top navigation design pattern, for example.

9. Movement

A design’s movement is defined as how the eye moves across the design. In order to get to the next most important element, you must have the most important element first. By putting emphasis on certain parts of a design first, positioning (the eye naturally gravitates toward them), and other design elements, this can be accomplished.

10. Variety

To create visual interest, designers use variety in their designs. Unless there is variety in a design, it will rapidly become monotonous, thus losing the attention of the user. Variation can be achieved using a variety of distinct elements, such as graphics, colors, shapes, and typography.

11. Unity

A design’s unity is the way in which its elements interact with one another. Each visual element in a design should have a clear relationship to another. Additionally, Unity helps establish a clear, coherent communication of concepts. Designed with good unity also appear more professional, high quality, and full of authority than designs with a poor sense of unity.